Human Dimensions I

Contributed Paper
ROOM: Rooms 18 – Cochiti and 30 – Taos Combined

10:30AM The Future of Hunting and Fishing: A Case for Small Game as a Recruitment Tool.
Loren D. Chase; Doug Burt
Declines in hunting and the resultant waning of wildlife conservation revenues are concerning to state wildlife agencies. Agencies have attempted to bolster revenues through recruiting potential hunters; including hunting camps for youth designed to teach hunting techniques, ethics, and ingrain the heritage of hunting in new participants. Yet, hunt camps centered on big game may be problematic for biologic, economic, and sociologic reasons. In spite of these reasons, big game camps might be more effective at recruiting hunters than small game camps, but that has not yet been empirically proven. We completed an assessment immediately prior to a hunting event and another assessment up to 3 months after the hunting event. We compared the change of interest in hunting (i.e. “recruited-ness”) in pre- and post-event surveys for both big game and small game camps. A Bayesian Estimation of Student’s t Test (BEST) suggests small game camps recruit as effectively as big game camps (HDI -0.24 to 0.17. Therefore, given the similarities in the ability of small game and big game camps to increase likelihood of participation, we recommend wildlife conservation decision-makers consider focusing on small game recruitment camps for the a number of social, biological, political, and economic reasons.
10:50AM Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on Hunting and Fishing Expenditures and License Purchases.
Rebecca Chase; Loren Chase
The face of hunting and fishing in the US is changing; it has a few more wrinkles and a little more gray hair. Because wildlife conservation is 59% funded by hunters and anglers (license sales and federal excise taxes), predicting how this change will affect wildlife conservation revenues in the future is of interest to the conservation community. Yet we know little about the nature of these aging participants and how they may continue contributing to wildlife conservation. Even less information is known about how younger cohorts will replace the expenditures of retiring Baby Boomers. To clarify the role of cohort effects, we conducted an age-period-cohort analysis on data obtained from the 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 versions of the National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. We found both “period effects” and “age effects” will influence the future of wildlife conservation funding in unique, but predictable ways. All reasonable models predict declines in hunting and angling will not only continue but be exacerbated into the foreseeable future, therefore the conservation community would do well to prepare for changes in the conservation funding model.
11:10AM Using Age-Period-Cohort Modeling to Project Hunting Participation and Direct Assessment of Retention Intervention for Key Demographic Segments
Brent A. Rudolph; Richelle Winkler; Chris Henderson; Phil Seng; Daniel Escher
Michigan has a strong hunting tradition, ranking among the top states nationally for annual deer hunting participants. As is the case for most states, however, hunting participation has declined in recent years. We developed an Age-Period-Cohort (APC) regression model utilizing 19 years of regional Michigan resident firearm deer hunting license sales (1995 through 2013) to evaluate trends, project the future hunting population, and identify key demographic segments to assess drivers of the decline and potential interventions. APC results identified cohort effects across all regions, indicating strong generational influences on hunting participation. Males born between 1955 and 1970 are more likely to hunt, with these cohort effects minimizing typical age effects that decrease participation. Projections indicate 22% of the male firearm deer hunting population in 2035 will be ≥65 years old, compared to 13% at present. Female participation has increased. Projections indicate females may constitute 20% of the firearm deer hunting population in Michigan by 2035, compared to just 10% presently. Despite this, the reduced likelihood recent male cohorts (born since 1980) have to hunt is projected to drive a >20% decline firearm deer hunting participants by 2035. We conducted 6 focus groups of female and young adult male hunters and utilized their input to develop an online survey of deer license customers that had previously provided an email address. We successfully delivered 157,934 survey invitations; 32,468 of 38,612 recipients that opened an invitation completed a survey. We identified several preferences of female and young adult hunters that differed from the hunting population at large, but none suggested likely strong short-term effects from feasible interventions. We encourage agencies to use projections such as ours to explicitly plan how to meet changing needs of a demographically evolving hunting population and address wildlife conservation goals in the face of declining traditional revenue sources.
11:30AM Factors Influencing the Motivations of Natural Resource Professionals and Students in Texas to Pursue a Career in the Field
Maria F. Mejia; Kerry Griffis-Kyle; Tom Arsuffi
The Wildlife Society is interested in recruiting diverse individuals into the profession. Our goal was to understand why Texas students and professionals chose to enter a career in natural resources. We developed an online survey with questions regarding recruitment, motivation, and supports and barriers to entering the field. The survey was e-mailed to students and professionals Texas. Overall individuals knew they would enter this field during pre-k – 12th grade. We found that intrinsic motivation (internal to the individual) was more important than extrinsic motivation (external rewards), with females having higher in intrinsic motivation than males. All individuals indicated media and organized science/natural resource activities were important to attracting them to the field. However, older groups also attributed their interest in the profession in part to family and outdoor activities; whereas, younger groups did not include these experiences as important in their attraction to the field. An individual’s passion and personal interests provided the greatest intrinsic supports; while job activities and mentoring provided the greatest extrinsic support. Low pay, lack of educator/administrative support, and job security were identified as the biggest barriers. Generally, everyone was attracted to the profession through the same sorts of activities, experiences, and motivation. This indicates the profession must do better at providing more experiences for youth that target nontraditional gender and ethnicities to diversify the field. Hiring managers, natural resource managers, professional societies and human resource departments can use these results as they recruit individuals to the field and retain individuals in this field.
11:50AM Full STEAM Ahead: Using Place-Based Art to Evaluate 4Th And 5Th Grade Students’ Knowledge of Trophic Levels
April A. Conkey; Marybeth Green
Incorporating art into the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and math (converting STEM to STEAM) can help encourage innovation and creativity; however, effective use of art in STEM subjects is often lacking. Thus, we created an activity, for 4th and 5th graders (n = 33 and 27, respectively) at a small rural school district, that incorporated art, science, and technology. The research objective was to evaluate student’s knowledge of trophic levels using artwork as the assessment tool, and we predicted that this knowledge would increase by completion of the activity. Prior to instruction, we asked the students to draw a rattlesnake in its environment. Instruction consisted of a class visit and presentation on trophic levels by a wildlife scientist, a class field trip to view live rattlesnakes and learn about their local ecosystem, and art sessions to create a painting of producers and consumers (snake) from these examples. Students were videoed describing the trophic components in their painting and their art techniques, and the video was linked to an augmented reality app for an interactive art exhibit. Pre- and post-activity drawings were scored by three raters with a rubric (a Pearson’s correlation was performed for interrater reliability), and a paired samples t-test identified significant differences in improved trophic level knowledge for both grade levels. In addition, a qualitative analysis was conducted from student artwork/descriptions and a parent and teacher focus group, which identified themes of increased curiosity about rattlesnakes, connections to real-world applications and careers, application of art and science vocabulary, and student focus on art and science details. In conclusion, we recommend incorporating placed-based art and presentation activities for high student engagement and reinforcement and retention of science concepts such as food web interactions.


Contributed Paper
Location: Albuquerque Convention Center Date: September 25, 2017 Time: 10:30 am - 12:10 pm