Human Dimensions III

Contributed Paper
ROOM: Rooms 18 – Cochiti and 30 – Taos Combined

10:30AM Predation Services: A Framework for Studying the Costs and Benefits of Carnivores and their Prey
Sophie L. Gilbert; Robin Naidoo
The costs of carnivores to society are well known, and are typically presented as the price for receiving the ecological benefits of carnivores, such as increases in biodiversity. However, carnivores may also have direct and indirect socioeconomic benefits to society, which are not well studied. Direct benefits include increased ecotourism, while indirect benefits are accrued through avoided costs of prey, such as decreased prey-vehicle collisions and prey damage to crops and forestry. Here, we develop a model-based framework for valuing direct and indirect costs and benefits of carnivores, and use predator-prey-economic models to examine the potential role of prey density-dependence in determining when carnivores are likely to be a net cost or benefit to society. We find that proximity to prey carrying capacity has a strong effect on net carnivore cost/benefit, indicating that transferring the socioeconomic values of carnivore from one ecosystem to another may be problematic unless prey density dependence is accounted for. Including both costs and benefits of carnivores to society by quantifying predation services could improve both conservation and management outcomes by increasing effective communication to diverse stakeholders.
10:50AM Sustainability Evaluation of Terrestrial Hunting Systems in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
Arthur Mueller
Overabundant ungulate populations cause vegetation damages and human-wildlife conflicts worldwide. However, it is difficult to control them due to decreasing and aging hunter societies, especially in East Asia. To analyse sustainability in hunting systems in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, a Legislation- and Governance Check as well as a Sustainability Evaluation on the ecological, socio-cultural and economic pillar using a score system of 45 Principle-Criteria-Indicator sets have been applied to identify malfunctions and provide decision making support for organizational learning. In summary, Japan’s licence hunting system reached the highest score on all three pillars, i.e., it provides a regional role model of science-based, decentralized management and monitoring with regularly revised wildlife legislation, comprehensive data collection, hunting education, venison marketing, etc. Nevertheless, the incompliance with management approaches on a spatial and administrative scale should be addressed first. South Korea’s relatively young licence hunting system received a lower score in most categories. Particularly regarding the few hunting grounds, illegal harvesting, competing hunter associations, high damage compensation and culling pressure, there is a need for reform, additional control, sanctioning and monitoring. Taiwan showed the lowest sustainability score. Only the underprivileged indigenous people are allowed to hunt in a primitive and dangerous way, but they seek modern equipment and community rights. The vague indigenous-, arms- and hunting legislation urgently requires reformation. It is necessary to foster discussion and trust between conflicting parties, and implement nationwide wildlife monitoring to solve the current common resource dilemma. Huntsman like ethical animal welfare standards are not fulfilled in all countries. Legal market structures of wildlife products are still weak. Adaptation and adjustment to western hunting standards, integrative feedback management, institution building of co-management regimes, sustainable (eco-) hunting tourism and raising public awareness might provide incentives and solutions to tragedies of commons, especially occurring in South Korea and Taiwan.
11:10AM Perceptions of Wildlife Habitat Management Practices on New Jersey Wildlife Management Areas
Catherine Tredick; Daniel Moscovici; Joseph Russell
New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife (NJDFW) manages a system of 122 wildlife management areas (WMAs) covering nearly 345,000 acres of the state. These lands are primarily managed to protect and enhance fish and wildlife habitat, while providing additional recreational and educational opportunities where compatible. NJDFW managers use a variety of traditional habitat management practices on these lands, including prescribed burns, timber harvesting, food plots, herbicides, and mowing to meet their primary mission. Understanding how WMA users perceive these practices is essential for developing appropriate management objectives for these lands. Further, a potential shift from consumptive (e.g., hunting, fishing) to more non-consumptive (e.g., hiking, bird watching) users may have implications for how stakeholders feel these lands should be managed, and how these management efforts are funded. To better understand current recreational use and perceptions of management practices on New Jersey WMAs, we developed a survey to determine who is using these lands, what they are doing on these lands, and their perceptions of current WMA management practices. We also assessed users’ willingness-to-pay to use these lands as a potential funding mechanism for management efforts. We conducted surveys in-person across an entire calendar year, and used a stratified random sampling design to ensure that survey results would be representative of all WMA users across the entire state. Initial results indicate a majority of users on NJ WMAs are non-consumptive, are less familiar with traditional habitat management practices, and are generally more opposed to these practices than consumptive users. Preliminary results also suggest no difference in willingness-to-pay an additional fee to use WMAs between consumptive and non-consumptive users. In this presentation, we will present final results from the full, year-long survey, and discuss how these results might impact wildlife habitat management efforts on NJ WMAs.
11:30AM A National Analysis of Reptile Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services within the Protected Areas of the United States
Kenneth G. Boykin; William G. Kepner; Alexa J. McKerrow; Anne C. Neale; Kevin J. Gergely
A focus for resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis has been mapping and quantifying biodiversity and ecosystem services. The challenge has been to integrate ecology with economics to better understand the effects of human policies and actions and their subsequent impacts on human well-being and ecosystem function. Biodiversity is valued by humans in varied ways, and thus is an important input to include in assessing the benefits of ecosystems to humans. Some biodiversity metrics more clearly reflect ecosystem services (e.g., threatened and endangered species), whereas others may indicate indirect and difficult to quantify relationships to services (e.g., taxa richness and cultural value). We identified biodiversity and ecosystem service metrics that are reflected by reptiles and mapped these across the conterminous United States. We conducted a literature review to identify the biodiversity and ecosystems services that have been described. We then used the 322 reptile species distribution models in the conterminous United States from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Gap Analysis Program to begin to map those services. We focused on species richness metrics including all reptile species richness, taxa groupings of lizards, snakes and turtles, NatureServe conservation status (G1, G2, G3) species, IUCN listed reptiles, threatened and endangered species, Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation listed reptiles, and rare species. These metrics were analyzed with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Gap Analysis Program Protected Areas Database of the United States to provide insight into current conservation of reptile biodiversity and ecosystem services. We present results of these analyses of biodiversity and ecosystem services metrics focusing on current distributions and overlap with conservation lands.
11:50AM Citizen Reporting of Wildlife Disease Outbreaks
Caitlin N. Ott-Conn; Tyler R. Petroelje; Thomas M. Cooley; Julie R. Melotti
We analyzed the Michigan Department of Natural Resource (DNR) Online Diseased Wildlife Reporting database of publicly submitted sick or dead wildlife observations to estimate public engagement in wildlife disease monitoring. Online public report submissions between 12 August 2012 and 31 December 2016 totaled 6,032 (12,457 affected animals). Additionally, we identified 40 online report submissions (56 specimens) that were associated with carcass submission(s) to the DNR Wildlife Disease Laboratory for necropsy examination. During this same study period, the DNR published 33 press releases on wildlife diseases. We used multiple regression to assess the influence of disease season, days since press release, and time of year on number of online submissions (response variable). Using AIC model selection, we determined the model including a quadratic term for days since press release to be most supported. We confirmed 32% of these publicly submitted carcasses to have one of the diseases mentioned in a wildlife disease press release. Both results suggest that press releases increase public awareness of wildlife disease issues. Public reporting and submissions allows state agencies to identify wildlife disease outbreaks earlier and at a broader scale than is manageable by employees alone. State agencies, in response need to fully utilize their public by providing adequate resources and education in wildlife diseases to increase public knowledge and submissions as seen with our data.


Contributed Paper
Location: Albuquerque Convention Center Date: September 26, 2017 Time: 10:30 am - 12:10 pm