Contributed Oral

American Black Duck Brood Ecology in Coastal North Carolina
Amanda Hoyt, Chris Williams, Doug Howell
Although years of breeding data exist for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) in North Carolina, the southern extent of their breeding range, little is known about brood ecology in the area. We monitored 160 black duck nests to hatch or fate in Hyde County, North Carolina over two years (2020-2021). Using spatial data collected via 20 GPS tagged American black duck hens and radio-marked ducklings from their broods, we quantified 1) movement patterns of broods traveling away from the nest to brood-rearing areas, 2) brood behaviors based on movements within different habitat classifications and age-classes, 3) selection of brood-rearing areas at the home range and microhabitat scale, and 4) which variables affect brood survival to Class III (43 days post-hatch). On average, marked broods moved 879 ± 966 m in the initial movement from the nest to a brood-rearing area. The estimated survival of marked ducklings was 0.8571 until 13 days post-hatch when all broods were lost. Management for black duck broods in coastal North Carolina should focus on reducing predators such as raccoons.
Impact of Canada Goose Molt Captures on the Number of Nests Based on 19 Years of Data in New Jersey.
april simnor, Nicole Rein
Canada goose (Branta canadensis) overabundance in New Jersey creates human-wildlife conflicts including accumulation of feces, overgrazing of lawns, negative impacts on water quality, and human health and safety concerns.  In 2019, the resident Canada goose population in New Jersey was 70,652 which is higher than the management objective of 41,000 geese set by the Atlantic Flyway Council.  Egg addling and molt captures with euthanasia are part of USDA Wildlife Services’ integrated wildlife damage management for Canada geese in New Jersey.  We analyzed 19 years of data to determine the impact of molt captures on nest numbers.  Sites analyzed include 65 sites where USDA Wildlife Services conducted both egg addling and molt captures with euthanasia as well as 48 sites where USDA Wildlife Services conducted only egg addling.  In comparing two consecutive years of data, we found an average 6% reduction in number of nests at egg addling sites and an average 25% reduction in number of nests at the molt capture and egg addling sites.  Sites with an additional molt capture in subsequent years resulted in a further nest reduction.  We further analyzed nest data to determine if nest numbers remained stable at two-year, five-year, and eight-year intervals.  At egg addling sites, the nest numbers remained stable at all intervals.  At molt capture and egg addling sites, we analyzed the nest figures after a site’s most recent molt capture.  We found that nest numbers remained consistent at the two-year and five-year interval with an average change of -3% (n=39) and 1% (n=23), respectively.  Whereas, the eight-year interval had an average increase of 14% (n=9).  Based on our 19 years of data, egg addling alone has minimal impact on nest numbers while molt captures with euthanasia have resulted in the reduction of nest numbers.
Wildfire Smoke Disrupts Goose Migration
Desmond Mackell, Anna Kennedy, Elliott Matchett, Michael Casazza, Cory Overton, Austen Lorenz, Eric James, Ravan Ahmadov, John Eadie, Fiona McDuie, Mark Petrie, Chris Nicolai, Melanie Weaver, Dan Skalos, Shannon Skalos, Andrea Mott
Catastrophic wildfires throughout the western United States in 2020 affected movement and behavior of migratory birds. Birds are particularly vulnerable to migration disruptions with limited energetic supplies and reliance on specific physiological and behavioral mechanisms for efficient flight. We show that smoke plumes from large and dispersed wildfires disrupted migration of tule greater white-fronted geese and resulted in disordered migratory paths, extended periods of rafting upon the Pacific Ocean, ultimately resulting in substantial energetic deficit. The smoke concentrations associated with change in migratory behavior reached a spatial extent that exceeded 64% of Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada combined. We demonstrate indirect effects of large-scale wildfire extending beyond the fire boundaries. As the timing and severity of wildfires has increased in the western United States, there is greater overlap between fire and migration seasons resulting in functional decrease in continental connectivity and increased impacts to migrating species.
Health and Behavior of Migratory and Resident Urban Canada Geese
Maureen Murray, Sean Obrochta, Ryan Askren, Maria Luisa Savo Sardaro, Katherine Amato, Seth Magle, Rachel Santymire
Many urban wildlife populations are more sedentary and exhibit less migratory behavior than rural populations, which may have important consequences for wildlife health and human-wildlife conflict. For example, migration is energetically costly and may increase physiological stress. Migration may also confer health benefits, for example if it promotes more diverse gut microbiomes by exposing migrants to different types of habitats. Further, year-round residency may promote greater habituation to people, which may lead to human-wildlife conflict. In this study, we tested whether migratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exhibit 1) higher physiological stress levels, 2) more diverse gut microbiomes, and 3) lower tolerance of human presence relative to year-round urban residents. We collected fecal samples and behavioral data from 32 GPS-tracked geese (10 migrants, 22 residents) in Chicago, Illinois, USA during the fall migratory period (September – October 2018). We analyzed fresh fecal samples for fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations as a measure of physiological stress and sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA for microbiome diversity and composition. We also recorded the minimum distance we could approach geese before they moved away (i.e. flight initiation distance). We found that physiological stress levels did not significantly differ between migrants and residents (p=0.61); however, they were higher in samples collected during goose capture (p < 0 .001), validating our approach. Migrants exhibited lower individual variation in microbiome composition (p < 0 .01) and lower microbial diversity (p < 0 .05) relative to residents. Migrants also moved away at a greater distance relative to residents (p=0.003). Our results suggest that migrants do not experience a prolonged state of physiological stress following migration. Although residents had more diverse gut flora, the compositional shifts and high individual variation in microbiome composition among residents suggests imbalanced microbial communities. In sum, our results suggest that year-round residency may have detrimental effects of goose health and may promote human-goose interactions in parks.
Survival and Cause-Specific Mortality of American Green-Winged Teal on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska
Jordan Thompson, Ben Sedinger, Bryan Daniels, Kyle Spragens, Melissa Gabrielson, Chris Nicolai, Thomas Riecke
American green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis; hereafter, teal) are an important harvested species across all flyways in North America. Despite the importance of teal, recent information on variation in vital rates among habitat types and regions is lacking. We used band recovery data and hierarchical autoregressive models to examine temporal, sex-, and age-class variation in survival and cause-specific mortality probability of teal banded at Kgun Lake on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska from 1997 – 2019. A total of 10,554 adult and juvenile teal of known sex were banded and released at Kgun Lake from 1997 – 2019 and 1,245 were recovered and reported by hunters. Estimates of survival probability for adult female and male teal ranged from 0.44 (95% CI = 0.29 – 0.54) to 0.49 (95% CI = 0.37 – 0.68) and 0.56 (95% CI = 0.50 – 0.61) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.50 – 0.64), respectively, during our study period. Estimates of survival probability for juvenile female and male teal ranged from 0.36 (95% CI = 0.18 – 0.56) to 0.46 (95% CI = 0.31 – 0.71) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.38 – 0.61) to 0.56 (95% CI = 0.44 – 0.71), respectively. Estimates of hunting mortality probability were generally greatest for males, with juvenile males exhibiting the highest hunting mortality probability and adult females exhibiting the lowest. Estimates of nonhunting mortality probability were greater and more variable than hunting mortality probability for all sex- and age- classes. Our results indicate that nonhunting mortality contributed the most to total mortality of teal banded at Kgun Lake during our study, and that survival probability of female teal banded at Kgun Lake is lower than other published estimates for teal in Alaska. We recommend managers initiate studies to investigate seasonal and geographic variation in survival and nonhunting mortality.
Drivers of Mallard Activity Patterns during Winter
Cory Highway, Abigail Blake-Bradshaw, Nicholas Masto, Ally Keever, Jamie Feddersen, Heath Hagy, Daniel Combs, Bradley Cohen
The spatial and temporal distribution of activity is fundamental to how organisms interact and are affected by their environment. Activity patterns fluctuate both daily and seasonally and are proximately affected by environmental conditions and the state of the individual. Thus, individuals must budget their activity based on a suite of circumstances including variations in weather, physiological state, forage availability, and predation risk. Furthermore, migratory animals must make decisions with an incomplete knowledge of their landscape. Here, we examine the influence of weather, hunting pressure, seasonality, diel period (i.e., day/night), and water conditions on activity patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in western Tennessee. We collected hourly GPS locations from 281 mallards of different age and sex classes in winters 2019–2021. Based on a binary analysis of steplengths, we considered that a duck was active when they moved 0.4–20 km. Movements < 0.4 km are associated with loafing behaviors, which we considered an inactive state. Surprisingly, mallards did not alter their activity based on hunting season. Instead, mallard activity was affected by temperature, precipitation, month, and diel period. Mallards decreased their activity as temperatures increased and rainfall decreased. Mallards were also more active earlier in the season and during crepuscular times.  Our results indicate that mallards are more active when conditions necessitate increased foraging or exploratory behavior such as colder weather or a greater distribution of water across the landscape. For managers tasked with increasing opportunity to see and harvest waterfowl, our results suggest that days during and after storm events are when mallards are most active.
Migration Stopover Ecology of Cinnamon Teal in Western North America
Michael Casazza, Cory Overton, Patrick Donnelly, David Olson, Fiona McDuie, Joshua Ackerman, John Eadie, Desmond Mackell
Identifying migration routes and fall stopover sites of Cinnamon Teal (Spatula cyanoptera septentrionalium) can provide a spatial guide to management and conservation efforts, and address vulnerabilities in wetland networks that support migratory waterbirds. Using high spatio-temporal resolution GSM-GPS transmitters, we tracked the fall migration of 61 Cinnamon Teal across western North America over three years (2017-2019). We marked Cinnamon Teal primarily during spring/summer in important breeding and molting regions across seven states (California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, Colorado, and Nevada). We assessed migration routes and timing, detected 261 fall stopover sites, and identified specific ecoregions where sites were located. We classified underlying habitats for each stopover site and measured habitat selection for 12 habitat types within each ecoregion. Cinnamon Teal selected a variety of flooded habitats including natural, managed, and riparian wetlands; flooded agriculture (including ditches); lakes and reservoirs; and urban ponds. Wetlands associated with agriculture were the highest used habitat type (24%) and over 72% of stopover locations were on private land. Resources used by Cinnamon Teal reflect wetland availability across the west, and further emphasize adaptability to dynamic resource conditions in arid landscapes. Reliance on potentially sub-optimal wetland habitat (golf course water features and agricultural ditches) may be indicative of a lack of suitable wetland habitats across the western landscape. Our results provide much needed information on spatial and temporal resource use by Cinnamon Teal during migration and indicate important wetland habitats for migrating waterfowl in the western United States.
Shifts in Migration Timing and Pathways of Prairie Waterfowl from 60 Years of Banding Data
Barbara Frei, Sarah Gutowsky, Christian Roy
Changes in the phenology of migrating birds, or lack-thereof, in consequence of a rapidly changing world, have distinct implications for the success, survival, and management of migratory birds worldwide. Shift in phenology and migration movements may have extensive implications, including: loss of socioeconomic opportunities by waterfowl hunters and associated tourism, reduced efficacy of monitoring and management efforts by land managers and policy makers, and conservation implications of habitat overuse in key staging areas. Using nearly 60 years of banding and recovery data from three harvested waterfowl species across North America, we identified changes in migration phenology and patterns. The banding data included Mallards, Blue-winged Teals, and Northern Pintails that were banded from 1960 – 2019 in the three prairie provinces of Canada, and were subsequently shot or found dead (i.e., bands recovered) during the fall (September – December) hunting season across North America. We visualized spatiotemporal changes in the phenology and distribution of fall migration using kernel distribution estimation (KDE; Calenge et al. 2007) and assessed the spatial relationships using STAMP (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Moving Polygons; Long et al. 2018). We found some species, such as the Mallard, are not only delaying fall migration, but are remaining in more northerly staging or overwintering areas, and even moving across different flyways than the same population in previous decades. Comparing these movements to climate change provides further insight to possible human and climate-induced drivers of changing migration phenology of waterfowl.
The Influence of Experimental Disturbance on Mallard Space Use and Movements during Winter
Bradley Cohen, Abigail Blake-Bradshaw, Nicholas Masto, Cory Highway, Ally Keever, Jamie Feddersen, Heath Hagy, Daniel Combs
Winter is an energetically and physically stressful time for animals and may be especially demanding for hunted species such as waterfowl.  Often, wildlife managers provide spatial sanctuaries and food resources for waterfowl along autumn migration routes and across wintering areas; however, studies indicate that waterfowl increase their use of sanctuaries diurnally during hunting seasons making many waterfowl largely unavailable to hunters.  Furthermore, increased use of sanctuaries by waterfowl may result in pressure from the public and other stakeholders to offer access to sanctuaries for hunting or other activities (e.g., birding, photography).  Despite seasonal closures of sanctuaries to the public, empirical evidence quantifying waterfowl responses to a gradient of disturbance regimes is lacking and may have greater population-level consequences than is currently understood.  To determine how different intensities of disturbances on sanctuaries affected daily movements and space use post-disturbance, we placed GPS/GSM transmitters programmed to take hourly locations on 180 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).  We simulated distinct disturbance treatments which represent activities that potentially occur on waterfowl sanctuaries including 1) waterfowl surveys from a vehicle, 2) pedestrian access, and 3) accessing wetland units via motor boat or all-terrain vehicle (ATV).   Disturbing mallards had little effect on their overall sanctuary use, and hunting season and diel period were more influential.  Similarly, disturbance only marginally increased daily space use of mallards.  Daily utilization distributions were greater during the hunting season (31.9 ha [25.5–40.0]) compared to the post hunting period where mallards used approximately 50% less area after hunting season. Disturbance, however, did increase daily distance moved; specifically, the pedestrian access resulted in an 11% increase (+0.7 [0.2–1.9 km) in daily distance, whereas vehicular access resulted in less severe impacts on mallard behavior. We discuss our findings in context of wildlife managers tasked with balancing stakeholder opportunity or satisfaction while supporting waterfowl populations.
Mortality Dynamics of Wood Ducks That Breed in the Upper Mississippi River Great Lakes Region
Drew Fowler, Ben Sedinger, Andrew Greenawalt, Thomas Riecke
Research has been inconclusive about how harvest affects the survival process in waterfowl, with mixed support for both the additive mortality hypothesis and the compensatory mortality hypothesis. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) abundance in the Upper Mississippi River Great Lakes Region (hereafter UMRGLR) has fluctuated through time and it is unclear how harvest has influenced this variability. We used Brownie band recovery models in a Bayesian hierarchical framework to estimate wood duck harvest and survival probabilities in the UMRGLR from 1961-2018. We partitioned our UMRGLR data into states (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to examine the affect harvest regulations (e.g., bag limits, hunting season lengths) have on wood duck harvest mortality and Bird Conservation Regions (hereafter, BCR 12, 22, and 23) to examine how environment factors (e.g., drought) influence non-hunting mortality of northern breeding wood ducks. Preliminary results suggest that wood duck harvest mortality partially compensates for non-harvest mortality for all age- and sex- classes[SB1] . Our analysis shows spatial and temporal variation in wood duck mean harvest probabilities that ranged from as low as 0.0337 (95% C.I. 0.0276-0.0404) for adult females in Michigan to as high as 0.0808 (95% C.I. 0.0700-0.0925) for juvenile males in Wisconsin. For the BCR’s mean harvest probabilities ranged from 0.0337 (95% C.I. 0.0287-0.0391) for adult females in BCR 12 to  0.0768 (95% C.I. 0.0672-0.0870) for juvenile males in BCR 23. Our results show that relative to harvest mortality, non-harvest mortality contributes more to spatial and temporal variation in the survival process for wood ducks that breed in the northern extent of the Mississippi Flyway, and that harvest partially compensates for non-harvest mortality. Our findings suggest that when managers are unable to solicit a population level response through harvest management, they might examine other factors affecting survival or the recruitment process of wood ducks in the UMRGLR.  [SB1]Cohort
Assessment of Credentials and Experiences for a Successful Career in Waterfowl Science and Conservation
Shari Rodriguez, Althea Hagan, William Conner, Lauren Hernandez-Rubio, Richard Kaminski
A paradigm shift in the wildlife profession from a focus on game management to a broader emphasis on biodiversity and its conservation has led to a transition in skills important for a successful career in the profession. Traditional emphases, such as habitat management, quantitative methods, species identification, field research, etc., remain important; however, the broadened focus reflects an increase in non-consumptive users and a growing awareness of the importance of human dimensions, inclusivity, and leadership. Identifying credentials and experiences for success in the field of waterfowl and wetlands science and conservation is of particular importance within the profession as the number of universities offering waterfowl-centric programs has declined since the 1970s (~40%). We conducted a survey in October 2019 of attendees of the 2013, 2016, and 2019 North American Duck Symposium. Our objectives were to determine (1) course work and experiences that professionals deemed important for success in the profession of waterfowl science and conservation, (2) technical skills, professional society certification(s), and personal traits considered important, and (3) socio-demographic variables and years of professional experience that may further predict credentials for a successful career. Response rate to the questionnaire was 53% (364/690). Professionals and students of both genders agreed on the importance of traditional technical field and practical skills, such as animal capture and handling, wildlife identification, wetland classification/delineation, and truck/ATV operation. They also agreed on the importance of statistics and modeling and communication of research to colleagues and the public. Our results are important to the waterfowl profession, and a similar survey should be administered to attendees of annual meetings of The Wildlife Society.
Microplastic Prevalence in North American Waterfowl
Mia Locquegnies, Jennifer Sweatman, Clarissa Moore
Plastic pollution is pervasive in the environment and, over time, breaks down into microplastics (fragments ≤5mm). Microplastics often become incorporated in animal tissues through ingestion. Current research on microplastics is primarily focused on marine organisms, with a majority of the research investigating the prevalence of microplastics in seabirds. While recent research has identified microplastics in terrestrial soils and aquatic environments, few studies have been conducted on waterfowl. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed the contents of the proventriculus, gizzard and intestines of North American waterfowl. Waterfowl gastrointestinal tracts from multiple species and feeding habits (divers and dabblers) were donated by local hunters. We hypothesized that microplastic abundance would differ based on species and feeding type of waterfowl. Of the gut contents analyzed, over 90% contained microplastics. Microplastic abundance was not significantly different between waterfowl species or feeding habits, but location within the gastrointestinal tract, proventriculus, gizzard, or intestines, was significant. The abundance of microplastics was significantly lower in the intestines than the proventriculus. This suggests that the majority of microplastics found in our samples were eaten within a short time of being harvested. The results of this study illustrate the pervasive nature of plastic pollution in the environment. As such, incorporating microplastic assessment into waterfowl conservation efforts is increasingly important.
Geographic Coverage of Continental Populations and Stocks of Priority Waterfowl Species By the USFWS Waterfowl Breeding and Habitat Survey and Other Breeding Waterfowl Surveys
Kristopher Winiarski, Emily Silverman, John Sauer
The USFWS Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey (WBPHS) is currently under review to determine whether the survey can be improved to better meet monitoring needs for priority waterfowl species. As part of the review, we used predictions from published spatial waterfowl models in Canada and from eBird Status and Trends in Alaska and the contiguous US to quantify the percentage of continental populations and stocks of priority waterfowl species that are currently surveyed by the WBPHS and other waterfowl breeding.  We used yearly predictions for Canada to document whether coverage of waterfowl populations by the WBPHS is changing over time and to assess year-to-year variation in coverage between 1990 and 2014. We found that the percentage of populations of priority waterfowl species surveyed by the WBPHS was highest for American black duck, and eastern stocks (e.g., American green-winged teal, goldeneye and ring-necked duck), which are surveyed with the current eastern survey area strata, and lower for priority species with northern breeding distributions (e.g., scaup and scoter species) or species with widespread distributions or stocks in the Pacific Flyway (e.g., continental populations of mallard and northern pintail and western mallards). State and provincial surveys provide important supplementary coverage of the continental mallard population and the western mallard and eastern American green-winged teal stocks. Annual variability of the percentage of the population surveyed by the WBPHS was high for some species (e.g., northern pintails), and temporal trends in coverage occurred for many species. Variability in the percentage surveyed and not just total percentage surveyed should be considered when identifying which continental populations and stocks may need additional survey coverage outside the current spatial extent of the WBPHS.
Comparisons between the Spatiotemporal Population Dynamics of Two Dabbling Duck Species – SRIP
Madeleine Lohman, Perry Williams, Thomas Riecke, James Sedinger
Research has established that wildlife responses to environmental heterogeneity vary according to life-history strategies and paces. However, few studies have compared spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics between species at landscape-level scales. The population distribution of dabbling ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains has shifted over the past 60 years with changing agricultural patterns and climate. These spatial and temporal gradients of land use, combined with natural heterogeneity on the landscape, create an ‘accidental experiment’ to see how changing environmental conditions affect broad-scale population dynamics. Despite their differences in life-history paces, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors) both belong to the same guild of dabbling ducks and have large populations in the PPR that have fluctuated over the past several decades. Using release and harvest data from 1961 to 2015, we will model age ratios and female survival in a Bayesian framework for both species. We predict the age ratios of both species will be higher in the southeast portion of the PPR, but blue-winged teal age ratios may favor juveniles at higher rates. Survival for both species may not show any spatial pattern; however, mallards may have a higher survival rate across all time periods. Comparisons of spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can help explain processes that have created distinct long-term population trends between these species. This research may also provide a model to help predict population responses to environmental heterogeneity for these species and other dabbling ducks lacking data.
Influences of Natural and Unnatural Risk on Waterbird Behavior – SRIP
Anna Sarkisian, Zane Fuss, Darren Wood
The proposed research project will evaluate the effects that natural risk events, including the presence of predators or competition, as well as unnatural risk events, including motorized and non-motorized recreational vessels, has on double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auratus) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias) behavior.  The research will occur in ten public lakes and wetlands throughout northwestern Pennsylvania from June 1, 2021 through August 1, 2021. Sites will be classified as recreational and non-recreational, with non-recreational serving as the control for unnatural risk. To eliminate the possibility of disturbance during sampling, focal random sampling will occur at a distance no closer than 50 meters from the individual being sampled. Sampling will occur in fifteen-minute increments using a video recorder with a 60x optical zoom. A 5-minute delay between behavior recordings and detection will be utilized to reduce observer influence. During the sampling periods, all behaviors will be recorded and analyzed for effects of disturbance. Behaviors to be analyzed include foraging; the time spent searching, stalking, and consuming prey, vigilance, preening (manipulating feathers), resting (no behavior performed), or dispersal from the area. The research performed will give insight into the effects that recreational activity and the presence of predators have on the behaviors of double-crested cormorants and great blue heron.
Habitat Variables Associated with Foraging Site Selection of Great Blue Heron – SRIP
Zane Fuss, Anna Sarkisian, Darren Wood
The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a prominent and widespread waterbird with a range occupying the majority of North America. Although their population size is stable, continued recreational and industrial development of shorelines or watersheds may impact occupancy of current foraging habitats. While research of great blue heron habitat has largely focused on variables associated with broad-scale site selection, there is insufficient research understanding the physical, biological, and chemical variables associated with microhabitat selection (i.e. foraging site selection). To determine microhabitats associated with foraging site selection and foraging success rates, great blue herons will be observed in ten public lakes and wetlands across northwestern Pennsylvania using random focal sampling from June 1, 2021 through August 1, 2021. Observations of individuals will occur from 50 meters away to avoid disturbance as well as a 5-minute delay between foraging behavior recordings and detection of an individual. Recordings of foraging behavior will occur for 15-minutes or until the heron has been disturbed from the area. Following the recording session, microhabitat data will be collected to determine variables associated with site selection. Physical variables to be measured include water depth and distance to shoreline, whereas biological variables will include percent aquatic plant cover, aquatic plant species richness, and terrestrial canopy coverage. Water chemistry variables including temperature, algae content (chlorophyll and phycocyanin content), conductibility, and turbidity will also be measured. Results of this study will help landowners, wildlife managers, and biologists identify the conditions needed for conservation or preservation of foraging habitats and overall continued success of great blue herons.   

Location: Virtual Date: November 4, 2021 Time: 3:00 pm - 4:00 pm